Skull anatomy by Leonardo da Vinci
Skull anatomy by Leonardo da Vinci. Historical artwork and notes on the anatomy of the human skull and teeth, by the Italian artist and scientist Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). This bisected skull shows the external structure (right), and dissected facial sinuses (left), the air-filled spaces inside the bones of the face. The diagram at lower left shows the teeth present in one half of the mouth: 4 incisors, 2 canines, 4 pre-molars, and 6 molars. Da Vinci was the first anatomist known to have correctly noted the number and root structure of human teeth. The notes are an example of his mirror writing, which was written backwards from right to left, and could be read in a mirror.
© SHEILA TERRY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Map of the City of Dublin, 1797
Map of the City of Dublin, Ireland. Published in 1797, this map includes details of the canals being built at the time. Canal Harbour (lower right) connects across bottom with the Grand Canal (lower left). The Royal Canal (upper right and a branch at upper centre) was a competing canal. Running across centre is the River Liffey. Borders of the city's wards are marked in coloured lines, with a key at lower right, next to the city coat of arms. The scale at lower left is in both English and Irish miles. In 1797, Ireland was ruled by Britain, and this map was published by the geographer to King George III and the Prince of Wales (the future King George IV).
© LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Phoenician coins and writing
Phoenician coins. Engraving depicting various coins and medals from the Phoenician civilisation. Phoenicia existed as a collection of city states in the coastal areas of modern day Lebanon and Syria. Its origins date back to about 2300 BCE (before common era), flourished through maritime trade around 1200-800 BCE and declined from about 500-65 BCE. Their coins were made of gold and were freely traded with other civilisations such as the Greeks. Phoenicia gave rise to a written alphabet (upper line of text), a phonetic alphabet thought to be the origin of all western alphabets. Beneath this is a line in Hebrew. This engraving comes from the Gentleman's Magazine published in 1760.
© Todd-White Art Photography