First World War helmet eye screen
First World War helmet eye screen. First World War soldier wearing a helmet with a chain mail screen designed to protect his eyes from shrapnel and rock fragments during shelling. The First World War (1914-1918) saw a large number of head wounds due to shrapnel from the immense number of artillery shells used by each side to try and break the deadlock of trench warfare on the Western Front. The modern steel helmet was developed in response to this, though most did not have screens like the one seen here. This helmet and screen was manufactured by the E. J. Codd Company of Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The USA entered the war on 6 April 1917, playing a crucial role in helping Britain and France to defeat Germany and its allies. Photographed in 1918.
© Us Army/Science Photo Library
Photographs of Harry Price at Work
Photographs of Harry Price at Work. Full length photograph of Harry Price seated demonstrating the electrical control under which Rudi Schneider was tested. He is wearing metallic gloves and metallic socks which are placed in firm contact, thus lighting six control lamps (Sepia). (Copyright: Photopress) Date: 1930
© (c) Harry Price Library of Magical Literature / Mary Evans
Plague doctor, France, 18th century
Plague doctor. Artwork of the clothing used by doctors during plague outbreaks. This design, though in use much earlier, is from The Great Plague of Marseilles, France, in 1720. The plague (or Black Death) affected Europe from the 1340s to the 1700s. It is thought to have been bubonic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, and spread by fleas on rats. This outbreak, one of the largest in Europe in the early 18th century, killed over 100, 000 people. The costume's beaked bronze mask contained aromatic herbs. This reduced the smell for the doctor and the limited airflow through holes in the beak reduced exposure to "bad air". Gloves and a heavily oiled undergarment and cloak were also designed to reduce exposure. 19th century artwork by Daumier, published in Devils, Drugs and Doctors (London, 1929).
© SHEILA TERRY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY