Development of the English alphabet
Development of the English alphabet. The Old Greek alphabet derived from Phoenician and was in use by 900-800 BC. A western variant, known as the Euboean or Cumae alphabet, was used between the 8th to 5th centuries BC. The Etruscans adopted it and spread writing within the Italic peninsula, leading to the development of the Latin alphabet by the Romans. Uncial was used by Latin and Greek scribes (4th and 8th centuries AD) and was written in capitals, as other alphabets. Minuscule cursive (lower case) script developed from rapidly written versions of uncial, incorporating the linking of letters in the 4th century AD. Table from The Story of the Alphabet (Edward Clodd, 1900).
© SHEILA TERRY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Luigi Groto, Italian poet
Luigi Groto (1541-1585), Italian poet. The circular Italian inscription gives his name, calls him the 'blind man of Hadria' (referring to Adria, northern Italy), and states that here he is 31 years of age. Groto studied philosophy and literature despite losing his sight soon after birth. He lived and worked in Venice, where he published several works of poetry and plays. Groto also worked as an editor on books by the 16th-century Italian aristocrat Giovanni Maria Bonardo. Artwork from the 1589 edition of Bonardo's 'La grandezza, larghezza e distanza di tutte le sfere'. This work concerned the nature of the planets, stars and celestial spheres.
© Todd-White Art Photography
Byzantine incrusted enamel, marble mosaic, glass mosaic, (1898). Creator: Unknown
Byzantine incrusted enamel, marble mosaic, glass mosaic, (1898). 'Fig 1: Christ enthroned on a rainbow and surrounded by the symbols of the four Evangelists - book-cover of gilt bronze decorated with incrusted enamel and stones, 12th century, in the Museo Correi at Venice. Figs 2, 3 and 5: Marble mosaics from floors in S. Alessio at Rome. Fig 4: Marble mosaics from floors in S. Maria in Cosmedin ibid. Fig 6: Marble mosaics from floors in S. Vitale at Ravenna. Fig 7: Glass mosaics from S. Maria in Araceli at Rome. Fig 8: Glass mosaics from S. Alessio at Rome. Figs 9 and 10: Glass mosaics from the Duomo at Messina. Figs 11-13: Glass mosaics from the Duomo at Monreale. Figs 14-16: Glass mosaics from the Facade of the Cathedral of Orvieto. Figs 17 and 18: Marble-mosaic-bands from capitals in St. Mark's at Venice. Figs 19 and 20: Marble-mosaic-bands from the walls of Sta. Sofia, Constantinople [Istanbul]. (Fig 1, after an original drawing by A. Borkhardt, architect at Stutgarl. Figs 2-5, 7, 8, 14, 15 and 16 after original drawings by H. Dolmersch al Stuttgart.' Plate 32 from "The Historic Styles of Ornament" translated from the German of H. Dolmetsch. [B.T. Batford, London, 1898]
© The Print Collector/Heritage Images