Andrei Kolmogorov, Soviet mathematician
Andrei Kolmogorov (1903-1987), Soviet mathematician. Kolmogorov is widely considered one of the most prominent mathematicians of the 20th century. He made major advances in different scientific fields, including probability theory, topology (a type of geometry), turbulence, and classical mechanics. There are several theories, equations and laws in these fields named after Kolmogorov; from the Kolmogorov axioms in probability theory to the Kolmogorov space in topology. In 1931, two years after finishing his PhD at Moscow State University, he became a professor there. Later, he was head of the departments of probability, mathematical logic and statistics at the university. He also became dean of the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics. Photographed in Moscow, Russia, in 1972.
© RIA NOVOSTI/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Volcanologist by Mount Etna eruption
Volcanologist wearing a heat suit as he watches an eruption of glowing lava (molten rock), ash and vapours from the volcano Mount Etna. The lava can range in temperature from 475 degrees Celsius (dim red) to 1150 degrees Celsius (white). The suit is designed to protect the researcher from this heat. Other dangers on the slopes of a volcano include poisonous gases, like hydrogen sulphide, and lava bombs, chunks of molten rock ejected by the volcano. Mount Etna stands 3323 metres tall on the Italian island of Sicily. It is the largest active volcano in Europe. Photographed in 2000.
© Jeremy Bishop/Science Photo Library
Penguin breeding colony research
Penguin breeding colony research, with researchers and photographers in the background. Located at St Andrews Bay, this is the largest breeding colony of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) on South Georgia. Recording tags attached to fledging juveniles transmit data by satellite. Studies here and at other king penguin colonies reveal the foraging patterns of these birds. This penguin is found in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions. It is a social animal, living and breeding in large colonies of thousands of individuals.
© CHARLOTTE MAIN/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY