John Henry Newman, British cardinal, late 19th century. Artist: Unknown
John Henry Newman, British cardinal, late 19th century. Newman (1801-1890) was a leading priest in the Church of England whose conversion to Catholicism was a major event of the 1840s. Newman was a popular speaker and a scholar at Oxford, making his conversion all the more welcome to Catholics and shocking to Anglicans. Newman had been ordained as an Anglican priest in 1825; he was ordained as a Catholic priest in 1847, and in 1879 he was created a cardinal by Pope Leo XIII. His Apologia Pro Vita Sua (1864) is considered a classic among religious autobiographies. (Colorised black and white print).
© The Print Collector
Erskine Nicol, 1880.Artist: Lock & Whitfield
Erskine Nicol, 1880. He exhibited his first painting at the Royal Scottish Academy at the age of fifteen. In 1846 he went to Dublin, and taught privately there for the next five years. His time in Dublin led to the subject of many of his subsequent pictures being Irish. In 1851 he was elected an associate of the Scottish Academy, and became a full member in 1859. He was then elected an associate of the Royal Academy in 1866, and joined the retired list in 1885. From Men of Mark: a gallery of contemporary portraits of men distinguished in the Senate, the Church, in science, literature and art, the army, navy, law, medicine, etc. Photographed from life by Lock and Whitfield, with brief biographical notices by Thompson Cooper. (Conducted by G. C. Whitfield.) (London, 1876-1883).
© The Print Collector / Heritage-Images
Paranthropus robustus and leopard jaw
Paranthropus robustus skull (SK-54) and leopard jaw (SK-349). These fossils date from around 1.5 million years ago. SK-54 is the skull-cap from a child australopithecine, found in 1949 in Swartkrans, South Africa. SK-349 is from the same location. Two indentations (centre right) in the skull-cap's parietal bone match the spacing (aligned here) of the canines in the leopard's lower jaw (mandible). The hypothesis advanced in 1970 (revised 1981) by South African palaeontologist Charles Kimberlin Brain is that the child was seized by the leopard from a sleeping site at the entrance to the cave where the fossils were discovered.
© JAVIER TRUEBA/MSF/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY