Gorbals area of Glasgow; Two young boys walking along a street in 1948
31st January 1948: Two boys walking along a street in the run-down Gorbals area of Glasgow. The Gorbals tenements were built quickly and cheaply in the 1840s, providing housing for Glasgow's burgeoning population of industrial workers. Conditions were appalling; overcrowding was standard and sewage and water facilities inadequate. The tenements housed about 40, 000 people with up to eight family members sharing a single room, 30 residents sharing a toilet and 40 sharing a tap. By the time this photograph was taken 850 tenements had been demolished since 1920. Redevelopment of the area began in the late 1950s and the tenements were replaced with a modern tower block complex in the sixties. Original Publication: Picture Post - 4499 - The Forgotten Gorbals - pub. 1948 (Photo by Bert Hardy/Picture Post/Getty Images)
Geological map of the British Isles
Geological map of the British Isles, with a colour-coded key (right, see C015/2656 for details and names). The geology of the British Isles is extremely varied with rocks from nearly all geological periods. The rock formation types shown are: sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous. The majority of the rocks in Ireland, England and Wales are sedimentary, with large areas of volcanic and metamorphic rocks in Scotland. The sedimentary rocks are colour-coded by geological period from most recent to most ancient (top to bottom). The oldest rocks are in north-west Scotland, the youngest in south-east England. For a simpler map with less detail, see C015/2655.
© GARY HINCKS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
First geological map of Britain, 1815
First geological map of Britain, detail of the north east coast (figure 8). This map was published in 1815 by British geologist William Smith (1769-1839). It shows rock layers (strata) in England and Wales and part of Scotland (key at lower left). Smith's work as a canal surveyor allowed him to study geology. He discovered that geological strata could be reliably identified at different places on the basis of the fossils they contained. Smith also proposed the principle of superposition, that if a strata overlays another then it was laid down at a later time. He is considered the father of English geology.
© NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM, LONDON/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY