Halsted, Cushing and Young operating
Halsted, Cushing and Young operating. Pioneering American surgeons William Halsted (1852-1922), Harvey Cushing (1869-1939) and Hugh Hampton Young (1897-1941) operating on a patient at John Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, USA, with physicians and students watching. Halsted was one of the four founding physicians of John Hopkins Hospital, which opened in 1889. He introduced aseptic technique and the Halstedian approach to surgery, which emphasised the careful handling of human tissue, control of bleeding and anatomically accurate dissection and suturing of tissue. Cushing was a skilful brain surgeon who pioneered several important techniques, including the control of blood pressure during surgery. Young specialised in genito-urinary surgery, performing the first surgery for the treatment of prostate cancer. Photographed circa 1903-1904.
© NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Calot's spinal surgery, 19th century
Calot's spinal surgery, 19th-century artwork. This operation is being carried out by the French surgeon Jean-Francois Calot (1861-1944) on a condition known as Pott's disease. This curvature of the spine is also known as tuberculous spondylitis, and is caused by tuberculosis (TB). Calot's technique was described in 1896 in a paper he read to the Academy of Medicine in Paris, and the operation is named after him. An orthopaedic institute he founded is also now named after him. Artwork from the 19th volume (first period of 1897) of the French popular science weekly 'La Science Illustree'.
© SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Plague doctor, France, 18th century
Plague doctor. Artwork of the clothing used by doctors during plague outbreaks. This design, though in use much earlier, is from The Great Plague of Marseilles, France, in 1720. The plague (or Black Death) affected Europe from the 1340s to the 1700s. It is thought to have been bubonic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, and spread by fleas on rats. This outbreak, one of the largest in Europe in the early 18th century, killed over 100, 000 people. The costume's beaked bronze mask contained aromatic herbs. This reduced the smell for the doctor and the limited airflow through holes in the beak reduced exposure to "bad air". Gloves and a heavily oiled undergarment and cloak were also designed to reduce exposure. 19th century artwork by Daumier, published in Devils, Drugs and Doctors (London, 1929).
© SHEILA TERRY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY