Lunar map of 1854
Lunar map of 1854. This map of the Moon's surface was published in Germany, and the title across top in in German. The Moon is orientated with celestial North at bottom, and the surface is divided up by lines of latitude and longitude. Early astronomers, from the time of Galileo onwards, used their telescopes to draw lunar maps of increasing accuracy. The main features of such maps are the lowland maria (dark area), the surrounding highlands (white areas), and the impact craters and basins. It was not until space probes were launched in the 1960s that the far side of the Moon was seen for the first time.
© DETLEV VAN RAVENSWAAY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Royal Flying Corps airmen attack a German monoplane, 1914
British army airmen of the Royal Flying Corps attacking a German monoplane in 1914. The pilot is seated behind the observer in the British biplane; the observer repels attack and fires on the enemy, usually with an ordinary service rifle, and makes observations of the enemy's position. Date: 1914
© Illustrated London News Ltd/Mary Evans
Johannes Kepler and Tycho Brahe
Johannes Kepler (left, 1571-1630), German astronomer, and Tycho Brahe (right, 1546-1601), Danish astronomer, discussing planetary observations. Brahe made naked eye observations, as telescopes had not yet been invented. In 1599, he established an observatory at Benatky Castle near Prague (now in the Czech Republic), under the patronage of the Holy Roman Emperor. From 1600, after reading Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographium (1596), Brahe employed Kepler to help make observations of the planet Mars. Kepler made use of these observations when devising his three laws of planetary motion, in which he showed that planets move in ellipses rather than circles.
© SHEILA TERRY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY