Al-Idrisi's world map, 1154
Al-Idrisi's world map. This world map, known as the 'Tabula Rogeriana', dates from 1154, and is orientated with North at bottom. It was drawn by Muhammad Al-Idrisi (1100-1165), an Islamic and Andalusian scholar working for King Roger II of Sicily. It is considered to have been the most accurate world map for the next three centuries. Regions shown include Europe (lower right), the Mediterranean Sea (centre right), North Africa (upper right), the Arabian Peninsula (upper centre), the Black Sea and Caspian Sea (lower centre), and parts of Asia (left). This is a restoration and transliteration carried out in 1927 by the German scholar Konrad Miller (1844-1933).
© LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Sandstorm, satellite image
Sandstorm, Aqua satellite image. Cloud of sand stretching into the Mediterranean Sea (blue). The sand is being blown from the Great Sand Sea, an area of the Sahara Desert that straddles the Libya (left) Egypt (right) border (grey line). At right is the lush area of the Nile Delta (green). Image taken on 28 February 2005.
© NASA/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Dugong, remora and golden trevallies
Dugong (Dugong dugong) with a remora (Echeneis naucrates) attached at its rear and juvenile golden trevallies (Gnathanodon speciosus) swimming in front. The dugong is a herbivorous marine mammal found in shallow, tropical waters throughout the Indo-Pacific region. It can grow to three metres in length and 400 kilograms in weight. Remoras have a symbiotic relationship with large sea animals. They use a sucking disk on the top of their heads to attach to their host. They clean the host's skin of parasites and the host's presence protects the remoras from predators. The golden trevallies swim in front of harmless sea animals to be pushed along by the animal's propulsion. Photographed in the Red Sea, Egypt.
© Alexis Rosenfeld/Science Photo Library