Durer's world map, 1515
Durer's world map, 1515. Albrecht Durer (1471- 1528) was a German artist. His skillful use of perspective and mathematical proportions made him one of the outstanding artistic figures of the early 16th century. This world map is based on Ptolemy's map plus extensions from Behaim's Globe of 1492. It is the first known perspective drawing of the entire Earth as a sphere, and was published in 1515, using the best maps of the time in collaboration with Nuremberg astronomer Johann Stabius. The map shows the world surrounded by 12 wind gods. Taken from Dr Willi Kurth's The Complete Woodcuts of Albrecht Durer (1936).
© SHEILA TERRY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Paddle Steamer Leith 1837
The paddle steamer Leith arriving at Grantham Pier, Edinburgh. Built by R.Menzies & Sons for the General Steam Navigation Co 1837 and used by GSNC for coastal service between Leith and London. At that time the largest steam ship built. Aquatint engraving after William John Huggins (1781-1845) seen flying the White Ensign and with cannon ports opened. Date: 1837
© Walter Rawlings / Mary Evans Picture Library
Stages in human evolution
Human evolution. Illustration showing stages in the evolution of humans. At left, proconsul (23-15 million years ago) is depicted hypothetically as an African ape with both primitive and advanced features. From it Australopithecus afarensis (>4- 2.5 Myr BP) evolved and displayed a bipedal, upright gait walking on two legs. Homo habilis (2.5 Myr BP) was truly human ('homo') resembling Australopithecus but also used stone tools. About 1.5 Myr BP Homo erectus (at centre) appeared in Africa, used fire, wooden tools, and migrated from Africa into Eurasia. Homo neanderthalensis (200, 000 years BP) lived in Europe and Middle East and was closely related to modern humans (right).
© David Gifford/Science Photo Library