1855 Punch Dinosaurs Crystal Palace
1855 Cartoon from Punch's Almanac of that year, ascribed to John Leech. "A visit to the antediluvian reptiles at Sydenham - master Tom strongly objects to having his mind improved". Clockwise from top; Iguanodon (with bird on its wrongly ascribed horn), Megalosaurus, Hylaeosaurus, prehistoric gharial (teleosaurus), ichthyosaur. The actual exhibits were designed to fit the victorian ideal of educating the masses. They were the work of artist Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins (based on the research of Owen, Mantell, Buckland, Conybeare and others). The Crystal Palace Antediluvians were the first life-size reconstructions of dinosaurs, and this cartoon indicates that many saw them as nightmarish monsters of a former age. Children would love dinosaurs ever after.
© This image is copyright Paul D. Stewart 2009. Do not reproduce without permission of the photographer at Stewartpauld@aol.com.
1861 Punch Dinosaurs & Comet cartoon 1861 Punch Dinosaurs & Comet cartoon
From Punch 41 (1861) page 34, July. "The age of the comet ascertained to a nicety. The antediluvians recognise an old acquantance of A.M. 1372". Prehistoric reptiles (modelled after Waterhouse Hawkins' Crystal Palace reconstructions at Sydenham), stare through telescopes at "the Great Comet of 1861". The comet was visible to the naked eye for three months in that year. The comet is now formally designated C/1861 J1 or 1861 II. The cartoon supposes the dinosaurs saw the same periodic comet during their reign on earth. This comet came within 0.1326 AU of the Earth - during which time the earth was within the Comet' tail. By day the comet's gas and dust even dimmed the sun. The cartoon gains poignance in light of the comet's near approach and recent theories about the dinosaurs' demise. The closest dinosaur is modelled after Hyaeolosaurus, mid distance Teleosaurus, furthest away iguanodon.
© PAUL D STEWART/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Galen's spirit system
Galen's spirit system. Historical artwork of the internal organs depicting Galen's concepts of anatomy and spirit. Galen introduced the spirit system, consisting of natural spirit in the liver, vital spirit in the heart and animal spirit in the nervous system. Claudius Galen (129-199) was a physician who worked in ancient Rome. He began by studying the anatomy of dead gladiators, and later studied animals when human dissection was forbidden. He made many important discoveries about the movement of blood in the body, but mistakenly believed that the heart was a single, rather than a double, pump.
© Sheila Terry/Science Photo Library