Portrait of a man, possibly Isaac Abrahamsz. Massa, c.1622 (oil on canvas on wood panel)
3934281 Portrait of a man, possibly Isaac Abrahamsz. Massa, c.1622 (oil on canvas on wood panel) by Hals, Frans (1582/3-1666); 107x85 cm; Collection of the Duke of Devonshire, Chatsworth House, UK; (add.info.: Isaac Abrahamszoon Massa (c.1586-1643) was a Dutch grain trader, traveller and diplomat, the envoy to Muscovy who created some of the earliest maps of Eastern Europe and Siberia.); © Devonshire Collection, Chatsworth; Reproduced by permission of Chatsworth Settlement Trustees; Dutch, out of copyright.
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Mustafa Shokay, Khazak statesman and public figure
Mustafa Shokay (1890-1941), statesman, political activist, scholar and public figure, ideologist of the struggle for freedom and independence of the Common Turkestan.
circa early 1940s
© AEO Nazarbayev Intellectual Schools / Mary Evans
Activist, Blue, Bowler, Collar, Common, Figure, Freedom, Hat, Ideologist, Independence, Jacket, Mustafa, Political, Profile, Public, Scholar, Shokay, Statesman, Struggle, Tie, Turkestan
Plague doctor, France, 18th century
Plague doctor. Artwork of the clothing used by doctors during plague outbreaks. This design, though in use much earlier, is from The Great Plague of Marseilles, France, in 1720. The plague (or Black Death) affected Europe from the 1340s to the 1700s. It is thought to have been bubonic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, and spread by fleas on rats. This outbreak, one of the largest in Europe in the early 18th century, killed over 100, 000 people. The costume's beaked bronze mask contained aromatic herbs. This reduced the smell for the doctor and the limited airflow through holes in the beak reduced exposure to "bad air". Gloves and a heavily oiled undergarment and cloak were also designed to reduce exposure. 19th century artwork by Daumier, published in Devils, Drugs and Doctors (London, 1929).
© SHEILA TERRY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY