Andrei Kolmogorov, Soviet mathematician
Andrei Kolmogorov (1903-1987), Soviet mathematician. Kolmogorov is widely considered one of the most prominent mathematicians of the 20th century. He made major advances in different scientific fields, including probability theory, topology (a type of geometry), turbulence, and classical mechanics. There are several theories, equations and laws in these fields named after Kolmogorov; from the Kolmogorov axioms in probability theory to the Kolmogorov space in topology. In 1931, two years after finishing his PhD at Moscow State University, he became a professor there. Later, he was head of the departments of probability, mathematical logic and statistics at the university. He also became dean of the Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics. Photographed in Moscow, Russia, in 1972.
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Phrenology busts, side view. Phrenology was a popular pseudoscience of the nineteenth century. The basis for the theory lay in a misplaced belief that a person's character and mental faculties effected the shape of their head. It was thought that this was because the skull became modified over the different functional areas of the cortex of the brain. Practitioners of the technique claimed that they could 'read' a person, that is assess their personality, by feeling the bumps on their head. In this bust, a wide range of personality traits are mapped across the various bones that comprise the skull. Busts by L.N. Fowler.
© MARK SYKES/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY