Map of the world, 1720
(Original Caption) 18th century map of the world. Published in Paris in 1720, this French map shows the known world, including the new lands that had been discovered in the preceding centuries by Europeans exploring across the Atlantic and far to the East around Africa. It divides the Earth into a western and eastern hemisphere, and uses colour to mark different areas of land. The map is by Guillaume de l'Isle (1675-1726), the leading French cartographer of the eighteenth century. He was appointed Premier Geographe du Roi to King Louis XV in 1718. This edition of his world map includes the western and northern coastlines of Australia, mapped by the Dutch. Australia's eastern coastline would not be mapped until 1770.
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Map of the Americas, 1660
17th century map of the Americas. Published in Amsterdam in 1660, this map by the Dutch cartographer Frederick de Witt (1630-1706) shows the geography of the Americas, the New World being explored by Europeans. The exploration of South America was well advanced by this stage, but large swathes of North America had yet to be mapped. The artworks across top show various cities, from left to right: Cusco (Peru); Tenochtitlan (labelled Mexico, now Mexico City); Olinda (Brazil); Havana (Cuba); San Domingo (Hispaniola); and Cartagena (Colombia). The artworks at left and right show natives of Virginia (north-eastern North America), Chile and Brazil, and the 'Magellanic' people of Patagonia.
© LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Frederick I Barbarossa Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick I Barbarossa (1122-1190), King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor. Born in Swabia in southern Germany, Frederick succeeded his father as Duke in 1147. Soon after this he went on the Second Crusade and despite its failure Frederick proved himself and won the confidence of the King of Gemany, Conrad III. When Conrad died, Frederick was himself elected King. Frederick undertook expeditions into Italy and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV. Frederick spent much of his reign brokering compromises between the German monarchy and the Italian states over the power and position of the Papacy which had previously tended to end in battle. To appease the Pope, Frederick went on the Third Crusade, but he drowned whilst bathing in the Saleph River. This woodcut comes from Giovio's Elogia vivorum bellica virtute illustrium, publised at Basle in 1596.
© MIDDLE TEMPLE LIBRARY/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY