Map of the world, 1660
17th century map of the world. Published in Amsterdam in 1660, this map by the Dutch cartographer Frederick de Witt (1630-1706) shows the expanding exploration of the known world. The map divides the Earth into a western and eastern hemisphere. In the upper corners are the constellations of the northern and southern celestial poles, with the geographical poles in the lower corners. Above and below the hemispheres are the Aristotlean elements of Air, Fire, Earth and Water. At upper centre is the Sun, with the Earth orbiting on an ecliptic ring of zodaical symbols. At lower centre, Ptolemy's geocentric cosmology (left) is contrasted with the heliocentric Copernican cosmology (right).
© Library Of Congress, Geography And Map Division/Science Photo Library
Aurora over Antarctica, satellite image
Aurora over Antarctica, ultraviolet satellite image. Australia is at upper left. This is the aurora australis (green ring), the southern lights display. It is caused by interactions between charged particles from the Sun (the solar wind) and gas atoms and molecules about 100 kilometres above the Earth. On reaching Earth, the charged particles are drawn by Earth's magnetic field to the poles, where they collide with gas atoms and molecules, causing them to emit light. This display, on 11 September 2005, was caused by a large solar flare. The aurora image was obtained by NASA's IMAGE satellite, which carried out a five year study of Earth's magnetic field.
© NASA/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
'The Second Western Party The Day They Were Picked Up By The Ship', 1912, (1913)
'The Second Western Party The Day They Were Picked Up By The Ship: Taylor, Debenham, Gran and Forde', 1913. The return of the Western Geological Party: geologists Frank Debenham and T.Griffith-Taylor, ski expert Tryggve Gran and petty officer Robert Forde standing on the deck of the 'Terra Nova'. The final expedition of British Antarctic explorer Captain Robert Falcon Scott (1868-1912) left London on 1 June 1910 bound for the South Pole. The Terra Nova Expedition, officially the British Antarctic Expedition (1910-1913), included a geologist, a zoologist, a surgeon, a photographer, an engineer, a ski expert, a meteorologist and a physicist among others. Scott wished to continue the scientific work that he had begun when leading the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic in 1901-04. He also wanted to be the first to reach the geographic South Pole. Scott, accompanied by Dr Edward Wilson, Captain Lawrence Oates, Lieutenant Henry Bowers and Petty Officer Edgar Evans, reached the Pole on 17 January 1912, only to find that the Norwegian expedition under Amundsen had beaten them to their objective by a month. Delayed by blizzards, and running out of supplies, Scott and the remainder of his team died at the end of March. Their bodies and diaries were found eight months later. From Scott's Last Expedition, Volume II. [Smith, Elder & Co., London, 1913]
© The Print Collector / Heritage-Images