PEACE PIPE CEREMONY, 1718. Chitimacha Native Americans in Louisiana on their way to take part in the calumet ceremony upon the conclusion of peace with the French in 1718. Copper engraving, French, 1758, after a drawing by Antoine Simon Le Page du Pratz
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Map of the Six Iroquois Nations in Pennsylvania and New York, 1771.
Hand-colored woodcut reproduction of an 18th-century document
© North Wind Picture Archives
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Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark, 1889 (colour litho)
497521 Battle of Pea Ridge, Ark, 1889 (colour litho) by Kurz and Allison (fl.1880-98); 53x71.3 cm; Gilder Lehrman Collection, New York, USA; (add.info.: On the night of March 6, 1862 Major General Earl Van Dorn set out to outflank the Union position near Pea Ridge, dividing his army into two columns. Learning of Van Dorn's approach, the Federals marched north to meet his advance on March 7. This movement--compounded by the killing of two generals, Brigadier General Ben McCulloch and Brigadier General James McQueen McIntosh, and the capture of their ranking colonel--halted the Rebel attack. Van Dorn led a second column to meet the Federals in the Elkhorn Tavern and Tanyard area. By nightfall, the Confederates controlled Elkhorn Tavern and Telegraph Road. The next day, Major General Samuel R. Curtis, having regrouped and consolidated his army, counterattacked near the tavern and by successfully employing his artillery, slowly forced the Rebels back. Running short of ammunition, Van Dorn abandoned the battlefield. The Union controlled Missouri for the next two years.
); © Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
© © Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History / Bridgeman Images