Hudson Steam Loco
A streamlined 4-6-4 Hudson steam locomotive of the New York Central Railroad. Designed by Henry Dreyfuss and built by the American Locomotive Company (ALCO), the engines were introduced in 1938. (Photo by Lionel Green/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
© 2007 Getty Images
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Nishina Yoshio and Niels Bohr
Japanese physicist Yoshio Nishina (1890-1951, left) in front of a blackboard with Danish physicist Niels Bohr (1885-1962, right). Bohr was awarded the 1922 Nobel Prize for Physics for his work on the structure of the atom. He said that electrons could only occupy discrete levels around an atomic nucleus. This explained the spectrum of hydrogen. He also worked on the atomic bomb project during World War II. Nishina is known as 'the founding father of modern physics research in Japan'. His research covered cosmic rays and particle accelerator development. He independently detected what turned out to be the muon in cosmic rays and discovered the uranium-237 isotope. Photographed in 1937.
© Nishina Memorial Foundation, courtesy AIP Emilo Segre Visual Archives /SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY
Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition, 1933-35
Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition, historical map. This expedition took place between 1933 and 1935, and followed an earlier expedition from 1928 to 1930. It was led by the US polar explorer and naval officer Richard Evelyn Byrd (1888-1957, depicted at upper right). On these, and later expeditions, Byrd used ships, aeroplanes and dog sleds to establish Antarctic bases. The Byrd expeditions laid the foundations for Operation Highjump, during World War II, and the later Operation Deep Freeze that established permanent bases in Antarctica in the 1950s. The inset at upper left shows the routes taken from the USA and New Zealand. The inset at lower right shows the Bay of Whales and the Ross Ice Shelf.
© LIBRARY OF CONGRESS, GEOGRAPHY AND MAP DIVISION/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY