Holland House library after an air raid BB83_04456
HOLLAND HOUSE, Kensington, London. An interior view of the bombed library at Holland House with readers apparently choosing books regardless of the damage. Photographed in 1940. The House was heavily bombed during World War II and remained derelict until 1952 when parts of the remains were preserved.
Holland House, originally known as Cope Castle, was a great house in Kensington in London, situated in what is now Holland Park. Created in 1605 in the Elizabethan or Jacobean style for the diplomat Sir Walter Cope, the building later passed to the powerful Rich family, then the Fox family, under whose ownership it became a noted gathering-place for Whigs in the 19th century. The house was largely destroyed by German firebombing during the Blitz in 1940; today only the east wing and some ruins of the ground floor still remain.
In 1940, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth attended the last great ball held at the house. A few weeks later, on 7 September, the German bombing raids on London that would come to be known as the Blitz began. During the night of 27 September, Holland House was hit by twenty-two incendiary bombs during a ten-hour raid. The house was largely destroyed, with only the east wing, and, miraculously, almost all of the library remaining undamaged. Surviving volumes included the sixteenth-century Boxer Codex.
Holland House was granted Grade I listed building status in 1949, under the auspices of the Town and Country Planning Act 1947; the Act sought to identify and preserve buildings of special historic importance, prompted by the damage caused by wartime bombing. The building remained a burned-out ruin until 1952, when its owner, Giles Fox-Strangways, 6th Earl of Ilchester, sold it to the London County Council (LCC). The remains of the building passed from the LCC to its successor, the Greater London Council (GLC) in 1965, and upon the dissolution of the GLC in 1986 to the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.
Today, the remains of Holland House form a backdrop for the open air Holland Park Theatre, home of Opera Holland Park. The YHA (England and Wales) "London Holland Park" youth hostel is now located in the house. The Orangery is now an exhibition and function space, with the adjoining former Summer Ballroom now a restaurant, The Belvedere. The former ice house is now a gallery space
© Historic England Archive
Boeing 787-8 Micro Cutaway Poster
Boeing 787-8 Micro Cutaway Poster, includes aircraft interior.
The 787-8 is the base model of the 787 family, with a length of 186 feet (57 m) and a wingspan of 197 feet (60 m) and a range of 7, 650 to 8, 200 nautical miles (14, 170 to 15, 190 km), depending on seating configuration. It is the only 787 variant, and the third Boeing widebody (after the 747SP and the 777-200LR) with a wingspan wider than the length of the fuselage.
The 787-8 seats 210 passengers in a three-class configuration. The variant was the first of the 787 line to enter service, entering service in 2011. Boeing is targeting the 787-8 to replace the 767-200ER and 767-300ER, as well as expand into new non-stop markets where larger planes would not be economically viable. Two-thirds of 787 orders are for the 787-8.
The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is a long-range, mid-size wide-body, twin-engine jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Its variants seat 210 to 335 passengers. Boeing states that it is the company's most fuel-efficient airliner and the world's first major airliner to use composite materials as the primary material in the construction of its airframe. The 787 has been designed to be 20% more fuel efficient than the 767 it is to replace. The Dreamliner's distinguishing features include mostly electrical flight systems, a four-panel windshield, noise-reducing chevrons on its engine nacelles, and a smoother nose contour. It shares a common type rating with the larger 777 twinjet, allowing qualified pilots to operate both models, due to related design features.
The aircraft's initial designation was 7E7, prior to its renaming in January 2005. The first 787 was unveiled in a roll-out ceremony on July 8, 2007 (7/8/7) at Boeing's Everett assembly factory, by which time it had 677 on order; this is more orders from launch to roll-out than any previous wide-body airliner. By October 2013, the 787 program had logged 982 orders from 58 customers, with International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC) having the largest number on order.
Development and production of the 787 have involved a large-scale collaboration with numerous suppliers worldwide. Final assembly is at the Boeing Everett Factory in Everett, Washington. Assembly is also taking place at a new factory in North Charleston, South Carolina. Both sites will deliver 787s to airline customers. Originally planned to enter service in May 2008, the project has suffered from multiple delays. The airliner's maiden flight took place on December 15, 2009, and completed flight testing in mid-2011. Final Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) type certification was received in August 2011 and the first model was delivered in September 2011. It entered commercial service on October 26, 2011
© FlightGlobal - All Rights Reserved
Airbus A380-800 Cutaway Poster
In 2010, Airbus announced a new A380-800 build standard incorporating a strengthened air frame structure and a 1.5¦ increase in wing twist. Airbus will also offer, as an option, an improved maximum take-off weight, thus providing a better payload/range performance. Maximum take-off weight is increased by 4 t (8, 800 lb), to 573 t (1, 263, 000 lb) and an additional 100 nautical miles (190 km) in range.
This is achieved by reducing flight loads, partly from optimising the fly-by-wire control laws. British Airways and Emirates are to be the first two customers to receive this new option in 2013. Vietnam Airlines has shown interest in the higher-weight variant.
In 2012, Airbus announced another increase in the A380's maximum take-off weight, to 575 t (1, 268, 000 lb), a 6t hike on the initial variant and 2t higher than the increased-weight proposal of 2010. It will stretch the range by some 150 nautical miles (280 km), taking its capability to around 8, 350 nautical miles (15, 460 km) at current payloads. The higher-weight version would be offered for introduction to service early in 2013.
The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by Airbus. It is the world's largest passenger airliner, and many airports have upgraded their facilities to accommodate it because of its size. It was initially named Airbus A3XX; Airbus designed the aircraft to challenge Boeing's monopoly in the large-aircraft market. The A380 made its first flight on 27 April 2005 and entered commercial service in October 2007 with Singapore Airlines.
The A380's upper deck extends along the entire length of the fuselage, with a width equivalent to a wide-body aircraft. This gives the A380-800's cabin 478 square metres (5, 145.1 sq ft) of floor space, which is 40% more than the next-largest airliner, the Boeing 747-8, and provides seating for 525 people in a typical three-class configuration or up to 853 people in an all-economy class configuration. The A380-800 has a design range of 15, 700 kilometres (8, 500 nmi; 9, 800 mi), sufficient to fly nonstop from Dubai to Los Angeles, and a cruising speed of Mach 0.85 (about 900 km/h, 560 mph or 490 kn at cruising altitude)
© FlightGlobal - All Rights Reserved